Tag: taxes

How to Handle Bad Debt and Taxes

When can you use bad debt to reduce business income?

How to Handle Bad Debt and Taxes Even when you take the customer to court and you still don’t get your money, there’s a way to make lemonade from this lemon of a customer.

If your business has already shown this amount as income for tax purposes, you may be able to reduce your business income by the amount of the bad debt. Look at bad debt as an uncollectible account—a receivable owed by a customer, client or patient that you are not able to collect.

Bad debt may be written off at the end of the year if it is determined that the debt is in fact uncollectible.

According to the IRS, bad debt includes:

  • Loans to clients and suppliers
  • Credit sales to customers
  • Business loan guarantees

How do you write off bad debt?

Your business uses the accrual accounting method, showing income when you have billed it, not when you collect it.

If your business operates on a cash accounting basis, you can’t deduct bad debt because you don’t record income until you’ve received the payment. If you don’t get the money, there’s no tax benefit to recording bad debt. You only record the sale when you receive the money from the customer.

Under accrual accounting, manually take the bad debt out of your sales records before you prepare your business tax return.

You must wait until the end of the year, just in case someone pays.

  • Prepare an accounts receivable aging report, which shows all the money owed to you by all your customers, how much is owed and how long the amount has been outstanding.
  • Total all bad debt for the year, listing all customers who have not paid during the year. Only make this determination at the end of the year and only if you’ve made every effort to collect the money owed to your business.
  • Include the bad debt total on your business tax return. If you file business taxes on Schedule C, you can deduct the amount of all bad debt. Each type of business tax return has a place to enter bad debt expenses.

It makes sense in any kind of business—no income recorded, no bad debt.

Collection efforts are important

A business bad debt often originates as a result of credit sales to customers for goods sold or services provided. The best documentation is likely to be a detailed record of collection efforts, indicating you made every effort a reasonable person would in order to collect a debt.

Take some solace by claiming a bad business debt deduction on your tax return. Not exactly a guarantee because you need to show that the debt is worthless, but it’s good to know there may be some relief.

We’ve got your back

The tax experts at KRS can help you with important accounting issues such as bad debt. Contact us today at 201.655.7411. And did you know that KRSCPAS.com is accessible from your mobile device and is loaded with tax guides, blogs, and other resources? Check it out today!

Time to Gather All Your Papers for Taxes

Time to gather your paperwork for Tax TimeGet started organizing paperwork now to make tax time less stressful.

Most of the papers you need to document the income, interest and withheld taxes you report arrive in your mailbox in January, with investment-related 1099s often coming in February. Get ready for their arrival by creating print and online folders. It’s a good idea to create a paper and an email tax folder for messages relating directly to tax information.

Email announcements that documents are available online will land in your inbox. The postal service may deliver your W-2s in your physical mailbox — although some companies post them on a secure site for downloading. Mortgage providers, banks and other financial institutions often post important 1099 forms on your online account.

Paperless banking may have turned shoe boxes into receipt relics of the past, while your online statements often contain key backup records for such potential deductions as:

  • Charitable donations
  • Outlays for health care
  • Gambling winnings and losses
  • Property tax expenditures

Many of us ignore the line items on these statements until we start our annual tax-filing ritual. However you may save time by taking a few extra minutes each month to jot down tax-related information, like:

  • Expense title
  • Check numbers
  • Payee names
  • Dollar amounts
  • Dates

Create a spreadsheet dedicated to tax records. Throughout the year, consider downloading and printing online documents that will be available for only a limited time.

Keeping track of everything

Here are some of the documents you should have handy:

  • Documents related to life events — marriage, death of a spouse or divorce, deductible alimony payment records, adoption papers, and child custody agreements should all be saved.
  • Paperwork related to childbirth. You’ll want the newborn’s Social Security card, childcare receipts and details on college savings plans.
  • Home ownership information. Keep such paperwork as closing documents — it’s good to keep closing documents in case you paid real estate taxes or points when you closed that don’t appear on your year-end mortgage interest statement. Save annual mortgage statements.

Other documents to consider:

  • Last year’s taxes, both federal and state. These are handy as good refreshers of what you filed and documents you’ll need.
  • Retirement account contributions. Keep track of your contributions to a traditional IRA or a self-employed retirement account. Keep this information handy for tax time.
  • Education expenses. Documents help your deduction claim here.
  • State and local taxes. Save these documents so that they can be easily retrieved.

The value of a tax return doesn’t end on April 15. You’ll need to provide this document to get a mortgage, apply for student loans and check the status of your refund. Generally, the IRS can audit you for three years after a filing date, and in some cases, even longer. Hold on to your return copies and supporting documents just in case. The IRS can audit you years after you file, so be prepared.

We’ve got your back

KRSCPAS.com is accessible from your mobile device and is loaded with tax guides, blogs, and other resources to help you succeed. Check it out today!

Deeper Dive into Single Member Limited Liability Companies

Deeper Dive into Single Member Limited Liability CompaniesEntity classification

LLCs with two or more members can be treated as a partnership or corporation for tax purposes. An LLC with one owner or single member limited liability company (SMLLC) can choose to be treated as a corporation or a “disregarded entity.”

The member of a SMLLC who wishes to be treated as corporation for tax purposes must file either Form 8832 to be treated as a ‘C’ Corporation or Form 2553 to elect classification as an ‘S’ Corporation. Where an individual does not file Forms 8832 or 2553 to elect to be treated as a corporation, the IRS will treat the LLC as a disregarded entity and it will be taxed as a sole proprietorship.

Tax treatment

By default, the IRS treats a SMLLC as a “disregarded entity.” This means the IRS will not look at a SMLLC as an entity separate from its sole member for the purpose of filing tax returns. Instead, similar to a sole proprietorship, the IRS will disregard the SMLLC and the member will report income and expenses and pay taxes for the business as part of his or her own personal tax return. Taxable income or loss generated by an operating business will be reported on Schedule C, while rental income will be reported on Schedule E. Since the ultimate responsibility for paying taxes on income generated by a SMLLC is passed through to the member, this way of taxing profits is called pass-through taxation.

Profits earned

As a disregarded entity, if the SMLLC has taxable profits for a given year, the sole member is required to pay taxes on that profit, regardless of whether the profits are actually distributed to the member. It is not relevant whether a member of a SMLLC leaves the profits in the business bank account or withdraws the money. Regardless, all income or loss are reported by the SMLLC owner for income taxation.

Example

Steve’s SMLLC, which owns rental real estate, earned $25,000 this year after expenses and depreciation. Steve decides that he doesn’t need the money and will leave the entire $25,000 in his business checking account to use next year. Steve will have to report and pay tax on the full $25,000.

SMLLC to partnership

There are instances when a SMLLC ceases to be a disregarded entity. One instance this is accomplished is through the addition of one or more new members to the limited liability company. The LLC’s tax reporting after an additional member is admitted no longer is reflected on Schedules C or E of the former sole member. The entity has become a multi-member limited liability company and must obtain an Employer Identification Number and file a partnership return.

We’ve got your back

With Simon Filip, the Real Estate Tax Guy, on your side, you can focus on your real estate investments while he and his team take care of your accounting and taxes. Contact him at [email protected] or 201.655.7411 today.

Real Estate FAQs from Last Month

Answers to real estate FAQs on 1031s and more

My team and I regularly receive questions on real estate-related topics. In this blog post, I answer some of those questions as they are important and others likely need the answers.

Realty Transfer Fee

Question: What is the realty transfer fee and who can expect to pay it?
Answers to this month's real estate FAQs
Answer:  The Realty Transfer Fee, also known as “RTF,” is a fee imposed by the State of New Jersey to offset the costs of tracking real estate transactions. Upon the transfer of the deed to the buyer, the seller pays the RTF, which is based upon the property sales price.

The RTF rate is a graduated rate and there are two different structures, depending on whether the total consideration is over or under $350,000.

It is important to note that a 1% fee must be paid by the buyer on all real estate transactions over $1 million in all commercial and residential property classes. This is also known as the “Mansion Tax.”

1031 Exchange Identification Rule

Question: What happens if you list three properties as replacement properties for your 1031 exchange, but all properties are no longer available?

Answer: One of the requirements of a 1031 exchange is taxpayers must identify a list of properties for potential purchase within 45 calendar days. Whichever property is ultimately purchased must be on this list. The rule allows taxpayers to identify three properties without limitation. Those listed are property that may be purchased, however not all are required to be purchased. If more than three properties are identified, the IRS rules become narrower and stringent.

The list can be changed an infinite amount of times until midnight of the 45th day. If the taxpayer is beyond the 45th day, the list is unchangeable and only properties listed can be chosen to complete the exchange. If the properties are not available after the 45th day, a 1031 exchange cannot be completed and the transaction is not eligible for deferral under Code Section 1031.

Section 179 Expensing

Question: Did the Tax Cut and Jobs Act (TCJA) change 179 expensing for rental property owners?

Answer: A provision of the tax code, commonly known as Section 179 deduction, allows taxpayers to deduct the entire cost of eligible property in the first year it is placed in service. For rental real estate owners, eligible property includes the majority of improvements to the interior portion of a nonresidential building, provided the improvement is put to use after the date the building was placed in service

The TCJA expanded the definition of eligible property to include expenditures for nonresidential roofs, HVAC equipment, fire protection and alarm systems, and security systems.

We’ve got your back

Have a burning real estate question? Email me and I’ll answer it in an upcoming post.

Tax Implications on Sale of a Partnership Interest

In determining gain or loss on sale of a partnership interest, taxpayers are often surprised to find they have a taxable gain.

For income tax purposes gain or loss is the difference between the amount realized and adjusted basis of the partnership interest in the hands of the partner.

Amount Realized

The amount the partner will realize will include any cash and the fair market value of any property received.  Further, if the partnership has liabilities, the amount realized will include the partner’s share of the partnership liabilities. If the partner remains liable for the debt, the amount realized will not include the partner’s share of the liability.Tax Implications on Sale of a Partnership Interest

Examples of Amount Realized:

Example 1 – Sale of Partnership interest with no debt:

Amy is a member in ABC, LLC which has no outstanding liabilities. Amy sells her entire interest to Dave for $30,000 of cash and property that has a fair market value of $70,000. Amy’s amount realized is $100,000.

Example 2 – Sale of partnership interest with partnership debt:

Amy is a member of ABC, LLC and has a $23,000 basis in her interest. Amy’s membership interest is 1/3 of the LLC. When Amy sells her 1/3 interest for $100,000 the partnership has a liability of $9,000. Amy’s amount realized would be $103,000 ($100,000 + ($9,000 x 1/3).

Gain Realized

Generally, a partner selling his partnership interest recognizes capital gain or loss on the sale. The amount of the gain or loss recognized is the difference between the amount realized and the partner’s adjusted tax basis in his partnership interest.

Example 1 (from above)- Sale of Partnership interest with no debt:

Assume Amy’s basis was $40,000. Amy would realize a gain of $60,000 ($100,000 – $40,000).

Example 2 (from above) – Sale of partnership interest with partnership debt:

Amy’s basis was $23,000. Amy would realize a gain of $80,000 ($103,000 realized less $23,000 basis).

Character of Gain

Partnership taxation establishes the general rule that gain on sale a partnership interest receives favorable capital gain treatment.  However, gains attributable to so-called “hot assets,” which include inventory, depreciation recapture, and accounts receivable of a cash basis partnership are taxed at less favorable ordinary income rates.

To the extent that a sale is attributable to the selling partner’s share of the hot assets, the resulting gain or loss is taxed at ordinary income rates. When real estate is sold to the extent the gain on sale is attributable to depreciation deductions, the resulting gain is treated as unrecaptured IRC §1250 section gain. §1250 gain is taxed at a flat 25% rate.

Like-Kind Exchange

It is important to note that in IRC §1031 (like-kind exchange), non-recognition treatment does not apply to exchanges of partnership interests.

We’ve Got Your Back

If you’re selling your partnership interest, we can help you plan the sale so that you pay no more tax than necessary. Contact Simon Filip, the Real Estate Tax Guy, at [email protected] or 201.655.7411 today.

Estate Tax Implications for Foreign Investors in US Real Estate

Estate taxes for US persons

An estate of a US citizen or resident alien is subject to an estate tax based upon the value of the worldwide property, owned or subject to certain rights or powers by the decedent on the date of death. The estate tax rate for 2018 is 40% for taxable estates in excess of an $11.18 million exemption, which is adjusted annually for inflation.Estate Tax Implications for Foreign Investors in US Real Estate

A US estate may also deduct from the taxable estate a marital deduction equal to the value of property left to a surviving spouse. The amount of lifetime taxable gifts during the decedent’s life is also included in calculating the gross estate.

Non-resident aliens and their estate taxes

While US citizens and residents are subject to worldwide estate and gift taxation on their gratuitous transfers, non-residents (persons who are neither US citizens nor US domiciliaries) are only subject to the US estate tax on property that is situated, or deemed situated, in the United States.

The gross estate of a Non-Resident Alien (“NRA”) includes all tangible and intangible property situated in the US, in which the decedent has an interest at the time of his death or over which he has certain rights or powers.

The taxable estate of an NRA is taxed at rates up to 40% of the value of estate in excess of a $60,000 exemption. Additionally, the estate of an NRA is generally not allowed a marital deduction unless the surviving spouse is a US citizen.

US property included in an NRA’s estate includes US real property owned or under his control and interests in US partnerships (including those holding positions in real property).

It is important to note the US does have estate tax treaties with multiple countries including Canada, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, and the UK, amongst others. These treaties may provide estate tax relief to residents of treaty jurisdictions.

Non-citizen spouse

When your spouse is not a US citizen, the unlimited marital deduction is unavailable. This is true regardless of whether or not the decedent is an American citizen. The result is the $11.18 million exemption is unavailable and the entire estate transferred to a non-citizen spouse would be subject to estate tax. With advance planning, the non-citizen spouse estate tax implication can be reduced or eliminated.

Planning to reduce estate taxes

There are several structures that will avoid or minimize the US estate tax of a Non-Resident Alien:

  1. The property can be held in the name of a foreign corporation.
  2. The property can be held in an irrevocable trust or a trust whose assets would not be included in the settlor’s gross estate for US estate tax purposes.
  3. The title can be held in a two-tier structure with the property in the name of an American company (US real property Holding Corporation) whose shares are held by an offshore company.

Although these structures are intended to avoid the US estate tax, the structures may result in the unintended consequence of higher taxes on sale, rental income, and, in some jurisdictions, franchise taxes.

We’ve got your back

If you are a Non-Resident Alien, we can help you plan so that your estate pays no more tax than necessary, while avoiding those unintended consequences. Contact Simon Filip, the Real Estate Tax Guy, at [email protected] or 201.655.7411 today.

Tax Cuts & Jobs Act and Section 199A

Tax Cuts & Jobs Act and Section 199AFor taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026, non-corporate taxpayers (individuals, trusts, and estates) may take a deduction equal to 20 percent of Qualified Business Income (QBI) from partnerships, S corporations, and sole proprietorships.

QBI includes the net domestic business taxable income, gain, deduction, and loss with respect to any qualified trade or business.

The deduction is available without limitation to individuals as well as trusts and estates where taxable income is below $157,500 if single and $315,000 if married filing jointly. There is a phase-out when taxable income from all sources exceeds $157,500 to $207,500 for single filers and $315,000 to $415,000 if married filing jointly. The deduction is 20 percent of the qualified business income, further limited of 20 percent of taxable income.

For example: Amy is a small business owner and files a schedule C.

  • Amy made $100,000 net income from her business in 2018.
  • Amy files a single return and her taxable income is $70,000.
  • Amy’s Sec. 199A deduction is 20% of $70,000, or $14,000.

QBI is determined for each trade or business of the taxpayer. The determination of accepted trades takes into account these items only to the extent included or allowed in the taxable income for the year. This figure cannot be deducted on the business return. There are two different categories in which trades and business can classified, Specified Service and Qualified.

Specified service means any trade or business involving the performance of services in the fields of health, law, accounting, actuarial science, performing arts, consulting, athletics, financial services, brokerage services, including investing and investment management, trading, or dealing in securities, partnership interests, or commodities, and any trade or business where the principal asset of such trade or business is the reputation or skill of one or more of its employees. Engineering and architecture, originally included as specified service trades or businesses, were omitted in the final version of the TCJA.

Qualified means any trade or business other than a specified service trade or business and other than the trade or business of being an employee. Industry types include manufacturing, distribution, real estate, construction, retail, food and restaurants, etc.

The Section 199A deduction for individuals above the taxable income threshold is limited to the greater of either:

  • 50 percent of the taxpayer’s allocable share of W-2 wages paid by the business, or
  • 25 percent of the taxpayer’s allocable share of W-2 wages paid by the business plus 2.5% of the taxpayer’s allocable share of the unadjusted basis immediately after acquisition of all qualified property

Taxpayers should run the numbers through both provisions to ensure they received the best possible deduction.

We’ve got your back

The new tax code is complex and every taxpayer’s situation is different – so don’t go it alone! Contact Simon Filip at [email protected] or 201.655.7411 to discuss your situation.

2018 Pension Plan Limitations Not Affected by Tax Cuts and Jobs Act

2018 Pension Plan Limitations Not Affected by Tax Cuts and Jobs Act

The Internal Revenue Service announced that the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 does not affect the tax year 2018 dollar limitations for retirement plans announced in IR 2017-177 and detailed in Notice 2017-64.

The tax law provides dollar limitations on benefits and contributions under qualified retirement plans, and it requires the Treasury Department to annually adjust these limits for cost of living increases. Those adjustments are to be made using procedures that are similar to those used to adjust benefit amounts under the Social Security Act.

As the recently enacted tax legislation made no changes to the section of the tax law limiting benefits and contributions for retirement plans, the qualified retirement plan limitations for tax year 2018 previously announced in the news release and detailed in guidance remain unchanged. This is good news for individuals contributing to their qualified retirement plans.

Cost of living adjustments

The tax law also specifies that contribution limits for IRAs, as well as the income thresholds related to IRAs and the saver’s credit, are to be adjusted for changes in the cost of living using procedures that are used to make cost-of-living adjustments that apply to many of the basic income tax parameters.

Although the new law made changes to how these cost of living adjustments are made, after taking the applicable rounding rules into account, the amounts for 2018 in the news release and the guidance remain unchanged.

We’ve got your back on the new tax code

The new tax code is complex and every taxpayer’s situation is different – so don’t go it alone! Check out the New Tax Law Explained! For Individuals page, then contact KRS managing partner Maria Rollins at [email protected] or 201.655.7411 to discuss your situation.

What You Need to Know About Individual Tax Extensions

What You Need to Know About Individual Tax ExtensionsBasic Rules for Individuals

For individual taxpayers, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) grants a six month extension to file your taxes each year as long as you complete Form 4868.

Filing an extension does not remove a taxpayer’s obligation to pay their income tax by April 15th. Taxpayers are expected to pay income tax to the IRS on time or they will be subject to late fees, penalties, and interest. This means taxes owed should be remitted by April 15th, regardless of an extension request.

Taxpayers have a few extra days this filing season. April 15th falls on a Sunday and Emancipation Day in the District of Columbia is observed on April 16th, resulting in a due date of April 17, 2018 for 2017 returns.

The extension allows taxpayers to gather all information needed to file a complete and accurate return without being assessed a late filing penalty. Taxpayers with complicated tax returns and those who have invested in partnerships or S Corporations and do not receive their K-1s until after the original April 15th due date should request extensions. The entities may have extended their own due dates, resulting in returns not being required to file until September 15th, with extensions.

A Federal income tax extension is good for six months, which extends an individual taxpayer’s filing deadline from April 15th to October 15th.

Penalties

Regardless of when an individual files a tax return, if the tax owed is not paid by the original  filing deadline (April 15th for individuals), the IRS will assess penalties.  The IRS will charge 0.5% each month of the amount of tax owed after the deadline.

When a taxpayer fails to file a return by the extension date, the penalty increases to 5 percent per month and subject to a maximum penalty of 25 percent.

State Extensions

The rules on state extensions are similar to those of the Federal. If the taxes are not paid by the original due date, there may be late payment penalties and interest. Some states do not require a separate extension to be filed if there is no tax due. For example, New Jersey grants an automatic extension of 6 months if there is no balance due and a Federal extension is filed. New York, on the other hand, requires an extension filing even if there is not a tax due with the return.

If you’re interested in learning more about how to manage your taxes, contact KRS today for a complimentary initial consultation.

IRS 2018 Tax Myths

With the 2018 filing season in full swing, the Internal Revenue Service offered taxpayers some basic tax and refund tips to clear up some common misbeliefs.

Myth 1: All Refunds Are Delayed

IRS 2018 Tax Myths
The IRS issues more than nine out of 10 refunds in less than 21 days. Eight in 10 taxpayers get their refunds faster by using e-file and direct deposit. It’s the safest, fastest way to receive a refund and is also easy to use.

While more than nine out of 10 federal tax refunds are issued in less than 21 days, some refunds may be delayed, but not all of them. By law, the IRS cannot issue refunds for tax returns claiming the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) or the Additional Child Tax Credit (ACTC) before mid-February. The IRS began processing tax returns on Jan. 29.

Other returns may require additional review for a variety of reasons and take longer. For example, the IRS, along with its partners in the state’s and the nation’s tax industry, continue to strengthen security reviews to help protect against identity theft and refund fraud.

Myth 2: Delayed Refunds, those Claiming EITC and/or ACTC, will be Delivered on Feb. 15

By law, the IRS cannot issue EITC and ACTC refunds before mid-February. The IRS expects the earliest EITC/ACTC related refunds to be available in taxpayer bank accounts or debit cards starting Feb. 27, 2018, if these taxpayers chose direct deposit and there are no other issues with their tax return. The IRS must hold the entire refund, not just the part related to these credits. See the Refund Timing for Earned Income Tax Credit and Additional Child Tax Credit Filers page and the Refunds FAQs page for more information.

Myth 3: Ordering a Tax Transcript a “Secret Way” to Get a Refund Date

Ordering a tax transcript will not help taxpayers find out when they will get their refund. The IRS notes that the information on a transcript does not necessarily reflect the amount or timing of a refund. While taxpayers can use a transcript to validate past income and tax filing status for mortgage, student and small business loan applications, they should use “Where’s My Refund?” to check the status of their refund.

Myth 4: Calling the IRS or a Tax Professional Will Provide a Better Refund Date

Many people mistakenly think that talking to the IRS or calling their tax professional is the best way to find out when they will get their refund. In reality, the best way to check the status of a refund is online through the “Where’s My Refund?” tool or via the IRS2Go mobile app. The IRS updates the status of refunds once a day, usually overnight, so checking more than once a day will not produce new information. “Where’s My Refund?” has the same information available as IRS telephone assistors so there is no need to call unless requested to do so by the refund tool.

Myth 5: The IRS will Call or Email Taxpayers about Their Refund

The IRS doesn’t initiate contact with taxpayers by email, text messages or social media channels to request personal or financial information. Recognize the telltale signs of a scam. See also: How to know it’s really the IRS calling or knocking on your door.

The IRS will NEVER:

  • Call to demand immediate payment using a specific payment method such as a prepaid debit card, gift card or wire transfer. Generally, the IRS will first mail a bill if taxes are owed.
  • Threaten to immediately bring in local police or other law enforcement groups to have people arrested for not paying.
  • Demand that taxes be paid without giving the taxpayer opportunity to question or appeal the amount owed.
  • Ask for credit or debit card numbers over the phone.

For more information on tax scams see Tax Scams/Consumer Alerts. For more information on phishing scams see Suspicious e-Mails and Identity Theft.

We’ve Got Your Back

A trusted tax professional can provide helpful information and advice about the ever-changing tax code. Check out the New Tax Law Explained! For Individuals page and then contact managing partner Maria Rollins at [email protected] or 201.655.7411 for a complimentary initial consultation.